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GastroIntestinal Physiology
Test your knowledge of Gastrointestinal Physiology
trivia quiz

1Activation of which of the following is normally associated with contraction of the smooth muscle of the gastrinointestinal tract?
Meisner's Plexus (Submucosal Plexus)
Celiac Ganglia
Auerbach's Plexus (Myenteric Plexus)
Mesenteric Ganglia
2Which of the following is true of slow-wave electrical potentials in gastrointestinal smooth muscle?
They are similar to true action potentials and lead directly to conctraction of GI smooth muscle
They occur at the same frequency in all portions of the GI tract
They occur as a result of calcium influx thru sodium-calcium channels
They are changes in the resting membrane varying tbwn 5 and 15 mv
3Which of the following would most likely decrease the number of spike potentials generated in the GI smoothmuscle?
Sympathetic Stimulation
Stretching of the muscle
Stimulation of the Vagus
4The basic process of digestion involves which of the following chemical reaction?
5In which of the following food substances is chewing essential for digestion?
Fruits and Veggies
6Which of the following is the main digestible carbohydrate normally consumed in the human diet?
7Which of the following chraracterizes carbohydrate digestion?
It begins when food comes in contact with gastric juice
It begins when food comes in contact with saliva
It begins when food comes in contact with pancreatic secretions
It ends when starch has been converted to maltose
8A patient with trigeminal neurapraxia (temporary segmental demyelination of the trigeminal nerve leading to conduction difficulties) would have the greatest difficulty with which of the following activities?
Receptive relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter
Secondary peristalsis in the esophagus
9During which stage of swallowing is respiration inhibited?
Volundary Stage
Pharangeal Stage
Esophageal Stage
Phstrandial Stage
10Inhibition of myenteric plexus leads to which of the following conditions?
Increased secretion of secretin from the duodenal mucosa
decrease in gut motility
hyperacidity in the stomach
11Lack of adeguate acid secretion by the gastric glands of the stomach has the greatest effect on the digestion of which of the following?
Fruits and veggies
12Stomach emptying is controlled mostly by which of the following?
Local neurohumoral mechanisms originating in the stomach itself
local neurohumoral mechanisms originating in the duodenum
activity of the small intestine
vasovagal reflexes that reduce the tone in the muscle wall of the body of the stomach
13The proenzyme pepsinogen is secreted mainly from which of the following structures?
Epithelial cells of the duodenum
acinar cells of the pancreas
gastic glands of the stomach
ductal cells of the pancreas
14Stimulation of the submucosal plexus results in an increase in which of the following?
motility of the gut
secretion of the gut
sphincter tone
stomach ph
15Acid secretion in ulcer disease can be reduced by which of the following interventions?
blockade of secretin secretion
blockade of histamine h2 receptors
blockade of the action of pepsin
treatment with antibotics
16Digestion of which of the following occurs almost entirely in the small intestine?
Fruits and Veggies
17Inhibition of vagal function has the greatest effect on which segment of the alimentary tract?
descending colon
anal sphincter
18The volume of food in the stomach has which of the following effects on stomach emptying?
as the volume increases, the rate of emtyping increases
as the volume increases, the rate of emptying decreases
as the volume of food decreases, the rate of emptying increases
Food volume has no effect
19In the condition of gastritis, which of the following describes the absorption of food products from the stomach?
decreased as a result of inflammation of the gastric mucosa
increased as a result of inflammation of of the gastric mucosa
within normal limits except for lipids
within normal lipids except for carbs
20Which of the following cell types found in the intestinal tract secretes hydrochloric acid?
Parietal Cells
Peptic Cells
Acinar Cells
Mucous neck cells
21An enterogastric reflex can be elicited by which of the following?
distension of the duodenum
acidic chyme in the duodenum
hyperosmotic chyme in the duodenum
all of the above
22Maxiumum activation of the proteolytic precursor pepsinogen to the active enzyme pepsin requires which of the following?
pH of 5 or greater
contact with previously formed pepsin and a pH of 5 or greater
Contact with an intrinsic factor
Contact with with previously formed pepsin and pH of 3.5 or less
23A high level of sympathetic stimulation is most likely to cause which of the following effects in GI function?
Increase gastric acid secretion
increase mucus secretion
decrease stomach pH
decrease in motility
24Which of the following substances stimulates the motor activity of the stomach?
25Which of the following describes the external anal sphincter?
It is composed of striated muscle and is under voluntary control
It is composed of intestinal smooth muscle and is under involuntary control
It automatically relaxes when a peristaltic wave approaches the anus
It is innervated by sympathetic fibers
26Which of the following substances is released from the mucosa of the duodenum in response to acidic gastric juices?
Substance P
Gastric inhibitory peptide
27Which of the following is true of the gastroenteric reflex?
It leads to increased peristaltic activity in the small intestine
it leads to defacation
it increases peristaltic action of the stomach
it stimulates contractions of the colon
28Sodium xport thru the brush border of the intestinal epithelial cells occurs by which of the following mechanisms?
Facilitated diffusion
co-xport with h+ ions
passive diffusion
active xport
29A 45 yr old man is found to have a condition in which the parietal cells of his stomach have been destryoed by an autoimmune mechanism. His diagnosis is chronic autoimmune gastritis. This condition is often associated with the following...
Gastric Ulceration
Pernicious Anemia
Protein deficiency
30Hypochlorhydria is a condition in which acid secretion by the stomach is greatly reduced. How does this condition affect the digestion and absorption of food?
Digestion and absorption of all food substances are nearly normal
Digestioni and absorption of all food substances are markedly reduced
digestion and absorption of carbohydrates are greatly affected by this condition
Digestion and absorbtion of fats are greatly affected by this condition
31Congenital absence of the myenteric plexus would most likely lead to which of the following derangements in gastrointestinal function?
Sluggish peristalsis in the segment of the gastrointestinal tract involved
hypersecretion of acid by the stomach
chronic diarrhea
intolerance to fatty foods
32Which of the following substances can inhibit small intestinal motility?
33Which of the following decreases blood flow to the villi of the small intestine?
34Which of the following structures in the GI tract is most at risk in this patient as a consequence of circulatory shock? (severed mesenteric artery)
Submucosal glands
Brunner's glands
Tips of the Villi
Sphincter muscles
35In the previous patient, which of the following describes peristaltic activity in the gut?
Decreased in all areas
Increased in all areas
Increased in the esophagus, stomach and small intestine
Increased in the colon
36Inhibition of the active xport of sodium thru the basolateral membrane of the small intestinal epithelial cells does which of the following?
Facilitates glucose uptake from the small intestine
Attenuates glucose uptake from the small intestine
Facilitates the absorption of water
Attenuates the absorption of fructose
37Which of the following is normally found in the abundance in the portal blood?
Short-chain fatty acids
Amino Acids
38Which of the following stimulates the release of digestive system enzymes from the acinar cells of the pancreas?
39Ganglionic blockade has the greatest effect on which of the following GI reflexes?
Gastrocolic reflex
Enterogastric reflex
Gastroenteric reflex
Myenteric Reflex
40Which of the following is paired correctly?
Cholecystokinin - gallbladder reaction
Secretin- relaxation of spincter of Oddi
Secretin- stimulation of enzymatic
Cholecytokinin- relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi
41Which of the following is not normally associated with activation of the peristaltic reflex?
distension of the gut wall
sympathetic stimulation
presence in the gut of a hypertonic solution
irritation of the epithelium of the gut
42The secretion of bile is important for the proper digestion of which of the following?
43Which of the following is true of mass movements?
They normally move colonic contents from the cecum to the transverse colon
they are strong peristaltic contractions of the small intestine in response to mucosal irritation
they normally occur approximately 9-12 times per minute
they are a modified type of peristalsis that occurs in the large intestine
44Which of the following best characterizes the secretions of the small intestine?
Hypotonic and slightly acidic
Hypotonic and slightly alkalane
Isotonic and slightly alkaline
Isotonic and slightly acidic
45Which of the following best characterizes the secretions of large intestine?
They contain enzymes for the final digestion of food
They are mostly mucus
They contain largue quantities of bicarbonate ions
They consist mostly of trapped bacteria from the crypts of Lieberkuhn
46Which point in the figure above indicates the place in the colon where the colonic chyme is fluid?
Point A
Point B
Point C
Point D
Point E

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